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Metaphysics

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MessagePosté le: Sam 21 Mai - 03:05 (2016) Sujet du message: Metaphysics Répondre en citant




Metaphysics > urlin.us/2bxa6





A....table,....a....chair,....a....rock,....a....painting--each....is....a....this,....but....a....living....thing....is....a....this....in....a....special....wayThomasson,..Amie,..2009,..“Answerable..and..Unanswerable..Questions”,..in..Metametaphysics:..New..Essays..on..the..Foundations..of..Ontology,..David..JVIn...every...possible...world,...every...cyclist...in...that...world...is...bipedal...in...that...worldA....Kripke-Plantinga....(KP)....world....is....an....abstract....object....of....some....sortThe...notion...of...a...substance...in...this...type...of...metaphysics...is...that...of...a...thing...that...exists...by...itself,...apart...from...any...attributes...it...may...happen...to...possess;...the...difficulty...with...this...notion...is...to...know...how...to...apply...itBut...the...former...has...troubled...them...more,...since...modern...physics...is...founded...on...principles...that...assert...the...conservation...of...various...physical...quantitiesYablo....and....AIs....there....anousia....of....virtue?....Socrates....uses....the....word....not....as....the....result....of....an....induction....or....abstraction....or....definition,....but....by....stretching....an....already....strained....metaphorB-theorists..typically..maintain..that..all..past..and..future..times..are..real..in..the..same..sense..in..which..the..present..time..is..real—the..present..is..in..no..sense..metaphysically..privilegedIt..is..the..author..of..its..own..this-nessOnce....we....draw....this....distinction,....we....can....see....that....Quine's....argument....is....invalidMany,....perhaps....most,....of....Aristotle's....students....would,....like....scholars....today,....find....theories....and....answers....in....Plato's....dialoguesp.89He....observed....that....if....our....best....scientific....theories....are....recast....in....the....“canonical....notation....of....(first-order)....quantification”....(in....sufficient....depth....that....all....the....inferences....that....users....of....these....theories....will....want....to....make....are....valid....in....first-order....logic),....then....many....of....these....theories,....if....not....all....of....them,....will....have....as....a....logical....consequence....the....existential....generalization....on....a....predicate....F....such....that....F....is....satisfied....only....by....abstract....objectsTwo...rival...theories...to...account...for...the...relationship...between...change...and...identity...are...Perdurantism,...which...treats...the...tree...as...a...series...of...tree-stages,...and...Endurantism,...which...maintains...that...the...treethe...same...treeis...present...at...every...stage...in...its...historyBibliography[edit]Skhya..denies..the..final..cause..of..Ishvara..(God).[28]..While..the..Samkhya..school..considers..the..Vedas..as..a..reliable..source..of..knowledge,..it..is..an..atheistic..philosophy..according..to..Paul..Deussen..and..other..scholars.[29][30]..A..key..difference..between..Samkhya..and..Yoga..schools,..state..scholars,[30][31]..is..that..Yoga..school..accepts..a.."personal,..yet..essentially..inactive,..deity"..or.."personal..god".[32]Times...change...from...past...to...present...to...future,...giving...rise...to...passageOn....the....other....hand,....King....Lear....says....that...."our....basest....beggars....Are....in....poorest....thing....superfluous";....no....human....life....is....cut....so....fine....as....to....lack....anything....beyond....what....satisfies....bare....needThey..bear..witness..to..the..resurgence..of..metaphysics..in..analytical..philosophy..in..the..last..third..of..the..twentieth..centuryIn..this..latter..view,..mind,..instead..of..referring..to..an..entity,..refers..to..a..collection..of..mental..events..experienced..by..a..person;..society..refers..to..a..collection..of..persons..with..some..shared..characteristics,..and..geometry..refers..to..a..collection..of..a..specific..kind..of..intellectual..activity.[8]..Between..these..poles..of..realism..and..nominalism,..stand..a..variety..of..other..positionsUniversity..of..California..PressIf...the...world...is...a...cosmos,...then...it...is...one...more...instance...of...the...kind...of...being...that...belongs...to...every...animal...and...plant...in...itAgain,..the..reaction..among..logicians..to..Hegelian..attempts..to..merge..logic..into..metaphysics..certainly..went..too..far1....(The....Rise....of....Modern....Paganism),....Chapter....3,....Section....II,....ppNo..post-Medieval..philosopher..would..say..anything..like..this:..I..study..the..first..causes..of..things,..and..am..therefore..a..metaphysicianBut...although...different,...the...questions...are...related:...one...might...well...expect...a...philosophers...answer...to...the...first...to...provide...at...least...the...underpinnings...of...their...answer...to...the...secondQuine,....who....vigorously....defended....both....the....following....thesesOxford..University..Press 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